In the country of Pakistan, English is a co-official language with Urdu. Thus, situating the current language policy and planning in Pakistan, the present study will aim at critiquing the language policy from the prism of linguistic and cultural diversity. I am originally Pakistani but I live in UK. Shamim, F. (2012). Findings from the study are useful for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers to improve the existing instruction practices and add to the ongoing debate about the spread of English in the world and its effects in the developing countries, such as Pakistan. PAKISTANI ENGLISH Pakistan and Languages Pakistan lies to the North West of the Indian Sub-Continent. B. M. Tsui & J. W. Tollefson (Eds.). Benson, C. J. TESOL from the University of Manchester, U.K., and M.A. Multilingual education concepts, goals, needs and expense: English for all or achieving justice? Alidou, H., Boly, A., Brock-Utne, B., Diallo, Y. S., Heugh, K., & Wolff, H. E. (2006). Based on evidence gathered through multiple research tools such as a questionnaire survey, classroom observation and interviews with students, teachers, school principals and experts observers, the study finds that early English-medium policy appears counterproductive as most students demonstrate poor English language proficiency. (2012, 10 January). p>Schools label themselves to be English medium considering that by implementing textbooks in English language and adopting English as a medium of instruction is sufficient to be English. In S. Mansoor, S. Meraj, & A. Tahir (Eds.). low-fee schools. The current paper studies the latest language policy of Pakistan and its implications for local languages. Given the sociolinguistic, educational and ecological context of Pakistan, the English language clearly performs a ‘killer’ role in the displacement of the local/regional languages. This suggests that early exposure to English may help students in developing the English language proficiency (Ortega, 2009). Cite as. Subject to clause (1) the English language may be used for official purposes until arrangements for its replacement by Urdu. A dime a day: The possibilities and limits of private schooling in Pakistan. Nowadays, the English language is considered a language of education, business, and research, moreover, English is a medium of instruction in higher education institutions in Pakistan and communication ability and autonomy are regarded highly important skills for the students’ academic success and professional development in the university context. Courts conduct their business in English. Benson, C. J. Pakistan has a large English language … I hope my opinion will count though. This study explored access to English in different school systems in Pakistan. A comparative analysis of the elite-English-medium schools, state Urdu-medium schools, and Dini-madaris in Pakistan. English is an important language; therefore, it may be taught as a language rather than as a medium at the primary level. In this regard, there is a need for a checklist or selfassessment tool to enable the schools to evaluate themselves to see their positioning as an English medium school as well as understanding their role in it. This policy was also not implemented mainly due to the war with India, separation of East Pakistan, and collapse of the military government. Based on evidence gathered through multiple research tools such as a questionnaire survey, classroom observation and interviews with students, teachers, school principals and experts observers, the study finds that early English-medium policy appears counterproductive as most students demonstrate poor English language proficiency. However, the respondents from advantaged family background used to speak Urdu and English language in their homes and they have bourgeois parlance. The study used a sample of 690 respondents who were selected through stratified random sampling technique from the region. Cell: 042-36673110, Email: Website: The book will be of great value to researchers, professionals and students interested in multilingualism and multilingual education all over the world. The tension between linguistic diversity and dominant English. Nevertheless, English language is legitimately dominant language of dominant people in the country. This study will discuss the present situation of English Language teaching in Pakistan, and the main challenges hindering the skill development of the students. Tsui, A., & Tollefson, J. W. (2004). Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Dunbar, R. (2010). Japan Forum, 20(2), 267-286. Benson, C. J. In M. Stephen & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.). Mansoor, S. (2004). Education Policy 1972: Zulifqar Bhutto announced a National Education Policy on 29 March 1972. At the end, a workable policy paradigm will be recommended that is inclusive and pluralistic, and which will guard against the current exclusionary policy, aimed at the preservation of linguistic and cultural capital. English is taught to all school level Pakistani students, and in many cases English is also the language used to teach the students other subjects. The current language policy in general and the language, This study analyses the crisis of English teaching in Pakistan. The scale construction methodology was used to carry out this investigation. 18.104.22.168. It is almost the sole medium of instruction in all the government and private higher educational institutes in Pakistan. In N. Rassool (Ed.). (2008). Therefore, we propose that the early-English policy may be reviewed, and replaced by mother tongue based multilingual policy. Results suggest that most respondents perceive early-English Pedagogical renewal: Improving the quality of classroom interaction in Nigerian primary schools. Previous studies focusing on the role of English in developing countries have reached different conclusions. In H. McIlwraith (Ed.). Importantly, behind the rapid spread and intense pursuit of English medium schooling is also a belief that the earlier the child is exposed to the English language, the faster she/he will learn the language. High Socioeconomic status (SES) students have maximum access to English while low SES students have minimum access to it. Nation-building in a Globalised World: Language Choice and Education in India: Language-in-Education Policy and Practice, The influence of age on the acquisition of English: General proficiency, attitudes and code-mixing, 14. J.A. “If you speak to a man in a language he understands, you speak to his head. Part of Springer Nature. We propose a review of the current policy and practices as they stand deviant from the theory of additive bi/multilingual theory, and modern communicative pedagogies. If you’re looking to work, study or live abroad then taking an IELTS test can help you make that dream come true. public’s heavy reliance and feverish pursuit of low-fee English-medium The maintenance and preservation of linguistic and cultural diversity largely depends on the state’s language policy and planning preferences. All the computer languages are uses as … (2006). This study aims to shed fresh insight into the problems of English-for academic-purposes at schools in Pakistan. schools which have expanded exponentially. internalization. Respondents’ majority also views additive multilingual policy At the college and university level all instruction is in English. In Pakistan, English is usually taught, except in elite schools, through grammar translation methods in which the teacher reads an English text followed by translation into Urdu or other local languages, as was done in colonial times. In H. Coleman (Ed.). In H. Alidou, A. Boly, B. Brock-Utne, Y. S. Diallo, K. Heugh, & H. E. Wolff (Eds.). Factors such as unavailability of qualified English teachers, poor pedagogies, sociocultural dynamics, and overall institutional weaknesses contribute to the failure of the policy. Low cost private schools for the poor: What public policy is appropriate? García Mayo, M. d. P., & Garcia Lecumberri, M. L. (2003). We argue that in broader terms, the English-only policy poses potential reductionist effects on existing language ecology, and English-medium private schooling furthers socioeconomic disparities between the haves and the have-nots. (2002). Not logged in Rassool, N., & Mansoor, S. (2007). It aims at motivating the students to read extensively in English and helping them overcome their problems in understanding English texts as a means towards increasing their reading proficiency through various skills. The issue of language in Pakistan is not just related to linguistics. Kirkpatrick, A. neither teaching/learning practices replicate English-medium policy nor An exploration of literature on second/foreign language (L2/FL) teaching suggests that the phenomenon in question has been investigated either by examining classroom processes or by exploring teachers’ lived experiences. 3. Abbas, S. (1993). In T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, A. K. Mohanty, & M. Panda (Eds.). The influence of age on the acquisition of English: General proficiency, attitudes and code mixing. The symbolic power of language and theories about the globalization of English including linguistic imperialism, world Englishes, and especially the sociolinguistics of English, are used as the theoretical framework for the study. Multilingualism and education in South Asia: Resolving policy/practice dilemmas. policy inevitable, and believe that the earlier the English-medium policy, Second, the practice of teaching English in varied instructional settings is described. McCarty, T. L. (2009). In Pakistan, the role of the English language is linked with language ideology due to the country’s British colonial background. English is an important language; therefore, it may be taught as a language rather than as a medium at the primary level. Employing a mixed methodology, this study analyzes English-medium policy in 11 low-fee private schools in part of Pakistan. As quality English-medium schooling stands the preserve of the elites only; therefore, we advocate for the democratization of English and its equitable distribution across all strata of society. Canagarajah, S., & Ashraf, H. (2013). (2003). This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. Based on data and experts’ views, study concludes that English language stands foreign to sociocultural ecologies of most children which results in several disadvantages – incomprehension of subject material, rote learning, reduced creativity/critical thinking, and parents’ disengagement from the teaching/learning processes. In A. It has 69 languages listed by the international agencies. The symbolic power of language helps to understand the importance of English from the participants’ perspectives and the role of education in perpetuating the existing class structure by limiting access to English. Let see. Willaims, E. (1996). Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research, and Practice in Multilingual Settings, Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy, Towards Multilingual Education: Basque Educational Research from an International Perspective, Using data from Sociolinguistics to teach the target language, Maintenance of identity when there is language shift. contextualized use of English is a rare feature while Urdu stands as the Thus, they develop the English teacher identities they adored while they were students. time. Rote learning and imitation mark the writing, reading, and examination practices. Theory and practice language education models in Africa: Research, design, decision-making, and outcomes’. However, the use of English in education is one of the main sources of failure for many ordinary people (Bruthiaux, 2002). (2009). English as an international language in Asia: Implications for language education. Khattak, S. G. (2014). García, O., Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Torres-Guzman, M. E. (2006). Language Planning in Higher Education: Case Study of Pakistan. They teach English not the way they were taught, rather, they teach the way they loved learning English. The education system thus perpetuates the existing class structure by providing limited access to English for ordinary people and minimizes their opportunities to participate in the development of the country. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2002). Drawing from the symbolic power of language and the sociolinguistics of globalization as a theoretical lens, this study involves participants from four types of schools in Pakistan: elite private, elite public, general private, and general public to have participants from different social classes. The finding of the study indicates that gap in skill development, low proficiency, improper evaluation, and problematic pedagogy are the main factors affecting skill development in the Pakistani EFL context. Myth of English teaching and learning: a study of practices in the low-cost schools in Pakistan, Chapter: English Language Teaching in Pakistan: Language Policies, Delusions and Solutions. Thus the exclusionary nature of policy virtually fits in the critical concepts of linguistic imperialism (Phillipson, 1992, 2004) and linguistic genocide (Skutnabb-Kangas, 1996, 2000). Factors such as unavailability of qualified English teachers, poor pedagogies, sociocultural dynamics, and overall institutional weaknesses contribute to the failure of the policy. Hardman, F., Abd-Kadir, J., & Smith, F. (2008). Students’ skills can be promoted incompetence and autonomy areas by providing them with interpersonal and physical space in learning the target language. In a society characterized by acute class division and intense class consciousness, parents from the lower, lower middle or working strata of society aspire to enroll their children in the English-medium schools. (2000). Although English is inevitable for academic purposes in schools, several local factors such as institutional incapacity, unqualified teachers, and students’ weak cultural/linguistic base in English make this policy problematic. The problems faced by the students in understanding texts written in English are particularly highlighted, and implications drawn for the successful implementation of extensive reading programs in rural and urban schools. (2017), in the past, more research focused on language teaching methods and learning styles. This paper focuses on the pedagogical techniques being used by English Language Teachers to develop reading skills at the secondary school level in Lahore, Pakistan. The selection of the policies of 2008 is also an advancement in this paper, which has helped in looking at the current policies in Pakistan. English-teaching institutions in Pakistan. Only English and Urdu are taught as media of instruction in the government and the private schools and colleges. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Since English is at the top hierarchal position in Pakistan, those who are not fluent in the language are unable to socially advance, become employed, and compete in various competitive exams. (2012). Aim- to make the teaching of the target language more interesting and meaningful if links are made to sociolinguistics. Shamim, F. (2008). The language of the courts is also English. Literacy and bi/multilingual education in Africa: Recovering collective memory and expertise. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016, English Language Education Policy in Asia, Mother tongue based multilingual education, Sociolinguistic/ethnolinguistic realities versus English-medium education, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2006.10.004, https://www.ethnologue.com/statistics/country, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2013.01.002, http://www.theguardian.com/education/2012/jan/10/pakistan-language-crisis, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences (BUITEMS), https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22464-0_10. fraught with several challenges and limitations. in education policy in particular exclude all the indigenous mother tongues from the schooling system except Sindhi, the numerically dominant language in the Sindh province. Mesthrie, R. (2006). Employing a mixed methodology, this study analyzes English-medium policy in 11 low-fee private schools in part of Pakistan. theoretical fault lines and institutional/pedagogical challenges in the off late. In this project, we have focused Langue planning and language policy (LPLP) generally, in particular, in Pakistani context and discussed the dilemma of language policy in Pakistan. In A. Kirkpatrick & R. Sussex (Eds.). One reports on the massive failure in Namibia of English as the main medium of education: "Language policy 'poisoning' children". The medium of instruction dilemma: Implications for language planning in higher education. The study offers recommendations that could help the Pakistani policymakers to align the policy with practice, research, and the teachers’ voices in order to achieve the desired outcomes. (2009). Owing to globalization and communication development, the role of the English language is changing; thus, there is need to change the policies and ideologies surrounding English instruction, particularly when English functions as a lingua franca. Importantly, behind the rapid spread and intense pursuit of English medium schooling is also a belief that the earlier the child is exposed to the English language, the faster she/he will learn the language. English as the language for development in Pakistan: Issues, challenges and possible solutions. Higher education is beyond its scope, Contemporary issues in language, education and development in Pakistan. Viewing from the perspective of linguistic and cultural diversity, the current policy is highly exclusionary as it marginalizes the indigenous mother tongues to mere private ghettos. Manan, S. A., & David, M. K. (2013). methodology that utilized a questionnaire, interviews and observation, Jasone Cenoz proposes the 'Continua of Multilingual Education' as a tool to identify different types of multilingual schools and focuses on Basque educational research to discuss issues that are relevant for other contexts. However, this date came and went, as had many other dates before it, and English is as firmly entrenched in the domains of power in Pakistan as it was in 1947. Therefore, we propose that the early-English policy may be reviewed, and replaced by mother tongue based multilingual policy. According to Nyinondi et al. Manan, S. A., David, M. K., & Dumanig, F. P. (2015). The earlier document was subjected to public scrutiny in Pakistan through a series of policy dialogues, conference presentations, ministerial level discussions and radio phone-in programmes. Language management: A snapshot of governmentality within the private schools in Quetta, Pakistan. 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